Economic Benefits from National Parks
Local businesses benefit from the funds granted by the Finnish government for national parks and hiking areas, as the funds return to society many-folded through local entrepreneurship and jobs. Government budget funds are used for building and maintaining hiking facilities in national parks and hiking areas. The private sector creates tourism business services around these areas.
The Finnish government finances the trails and campfire sites, i.e. the infrastructure of national parks and hiking areas. These facilities help create tourism industry in the vicinity of the protected areas.
The input-output ratio of the national parks is good: when Metsähallitus, Parks & Wildlife Finland invests one euro of tax payers’ money in the hiking services of national parks, the local economy benefits over 10 euros, on average. For national parks located next to ski resorts, the average input-output ratio is still higher. Close to big cities and the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, the visitation impacts are primarily recreation and health benefits.
Results in 2021
The total income and job impacts of all the 40 national parks in 2021 were 310.3 million euros and about 2,452 jobs (full-time equivalent) and for all the 5 national hiking areas 14.4 million euros and about 124 jobs (FTE).
Year 2021, the national parks with biggest local economic impacts were Pallas–Yllästunturi National Park with 83.5 million euros, Urho Kekkonen National Park with 49.2 million euros, Oulanka National Park with 36.4 million euros, Koli National Park with 24.9 million euros and Pyhä–Luosto National Park with 21.0 million euros.
The biggest local economic impacts can be seen in tourism centres where the visitors stay for a longer period and the supply of tourism services is larger. In 2021, the visitation numbers in Nuuksio National Park in the Helsinki Metropolitan area were 314,500 and those in Koli National Park 256,900. Yet the local economic impacts were much more important in Koli which generated 24.9 million euros, whereas Nuuksio only 3.7 million euros.
- Local Economic Impacts of Finnish National Parks and Other Protected Areas Year 2021 (pdf, 159 Kb)
- Local economic impacts were not calculated in detail in 2020 due to covid-19-pandemic
- Local Economic Impacts of Finnish National Parks and Other Protected Areas Year 2019 (pdf, 103 Kb)
Popularity and Economic Benefits of National Parks Are in Crease
The visitation numbers of national parks grew two percent in 2021 resulting in 19% more income effects. A total of 4.0 million visits were paid in the 40 national parks of Finland. This is a fairly high figure considering that there are only 5.5 million inhabitants in Finland. The most popular national park in 2021 was once again Pallas–Yllästunturi National Park where the number of visits was nearly 0.7 million visits.
It is the belief of Parks & Wildlife Finland that the national parks will be able to tolerate even higher increases in visitation, as long as services are adequate and in good condition. With good planning of hiking trails and services one can prevent the adverse effects on nature. At the same time it is possible for tourism enterprises to increase their income. To prevent erosion, we have made the trails more durable, for example in Pallas–Yllästunturi National Park. At the same time, the trail network has been developed so that it is easier for the hikers to reach the local accommodation and other service providers.
- Vatanen, E. & Kajala, L. 2020. Update of multipliers used by the method assessing the local economic impacts of national parks, hiking areas and other protected areas valuable as nature tourism destinations, 2019. (In Finnish, summary in English; julkaisut.metsa.fi)
- Vähäsarja, V 2014. Assessment of the financial value of the health and well-being benefits of natural environments. (In Finnish, documentary page in English; julkaisut.metsa.fi)